European History

Terms and Definitions


ABSOLUTISM: the doctrine or practice of government unrestricted by representation or another means.

AFRIKANER: a member of the white race in the Republic of South Africa. The language, Afrikaans, originates from the early Dutch settlers. Natives are designated as Africans or Bantus.

AFRO-ASIAN (BANDUNG) CONFERENCE: held in April 1955, was the first international conference of African and Asian peoples: Ethiopia, Gold Coast (later Ghana), Egypt, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Cambodia, Ceylon, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, North Viet Nam, South Viet Nam. The conference passed resolutions condemning imperialism, supporting self-determination, and economic and cultural cooperation.

AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (AID): a U.S. government agency to administer economic assistance schemes.

ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS: (Al ianza para el progreso), is a United States sponsored and assisted movement, supported by 20 Latin American countries to coordinate and develop Latin American economics and to raise the standard of living.

AMNESTY: pardon for political offenders, although the term is sometimes used to include tax violators.

ANARCHISM: political doctrine of individualists who advocate the elimination of organized government. In pure theory, anarchists believe that men are so inherently good that rules are unnecessary. Anarchists have performed independent acts of violence. Derivation from the Greek anarchia, meaning non-rule.

ANSCHLUSS: was the union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938. Austria was actually absorbed into Germany as Ostmark.

ANTI-CLERICALISM: opposition to organized religion. The name for any policy which wishes to subordinate the Church to the State.

APARTHEID: pronounced apart-ate, and means literally apart-ness, and is the policy of the whites in the Republic of South Africa of literal segregation of blacks from whites. The natives have no rights other than those permitted by the whites. Apartheid is complete racial inequality.

APPEASEMENT: the making of concessions to an adversary in the hopes of avoiding trouble. Usually a policy of acting from weakness. It is not synonymous with compromise, a policy in which each adversary makes concessions to the other, and wins gains.

ARAB LEAGUE: a loose confederation or association of Arab countries, reflecting Arab nationalist sentiments. Has consistently opposed the existence of Israel and French control of Algeria.

ATLANTIC CHARTER: a joint declaration in August, 1941, by president Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, stating common principles for the future of the world. Although the United States was not involved in the war, it expressed its support for all people of the principles of (1) self-determination, (2)the right of free choice of government, (3)equal opportunities for all nations for trade, (4)permanent system of general security and disarmament.

AUTARCHY, AUTARKY: means self-sufficiency, the ability of a nation to produce all its needs, without dependence upon other nations. Derivation, from the Greek autarkeia, self-rule.

AUTHORITARIAN: a system of strong national government, essentially dictatorial.

AUTONOMY: means literally self-rule, but in historical practice has frequently meant virtual independence with some nominal subordination. After the Congress of Berlin, 1878, Bulgaria was divided into 3 zones, each with varying degrees of self-government, but still nominally within the Turkish Empire.

BAGHDAD PACT (Central Treaty Organization, CENTO): a treaty of 1955 between Iraq and Turkey, joined by Great Britain, Pakistan, and Iran for common purposes of security and defense. In 1959, after the withdrawal of Iraq, was renamed the Central Treaty Organization, with headquarters at Ankara.

BALANCE OF POWER: the foreign policy of two or more nations cooperating together in order to prevent one nation from becoming predominant over others. Under this policy alliances are sometimes formed.

BALFOUR DECLARATION: a letter of November, 1917 from Arthur J. Balfour, British Foreign Secretary, to Lord Rothschild, Chairman of the Zionist Federation, stating that the British government favored a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. Resulted ultimately in the establishment of Israel in 1948.

BANDUNG CONFERENCE: (Afro-Asian Conference), of 28 Afro-Asian countries at Bandung, Indonesia, in April, 1955. It was the first such Afro-Asian conference, and while it passed resolutions opposing colonialism and supporting self-determination, it condemned communism as Super-colonialism.

BANTUSTAN: an area in the Republic of South Africa set aside for occupation by native Africans. There are 8 such Bantustans, occupying 14 per cent of the land area for some 70 per cent of the population. Sometimes designated as native Reserves.

BENELUX: a convenient abbreviation of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, when these three nations are working together for common purposes.

BIPARTISAN FOREIGN POLICY: a foreign policy in which two opposing political parties agree upon common objectives and action in order to present a united national front in foreign affairs.

BLOCKADE: a system of preventing supplies from reaching another nation. Although normally referring to wartime conditions in which one nation’s navy prevents ships from entering another nation’s ports, it can be used for a similar operation in peacetime.

BOLSHEVIKS: the radical faction of the Russian Social Democrat Party. Derivation, bolshinstvo, a majority.

BOURGEOIS: the Marxists used this adjective to denote the attitude of the middle class (bourgeoisie), generally in contrast to proletariat or workers.

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH: a free association of independent nations which were formerly colonies within the British Empire. The Commonwealth has no common head, no common government, and no member has authority over any other member. The existing colonies are included as Empire in the full title, British Commonwealth and Empire.

BRUSSELS TREATY ORGANIZATION (Western European Union): a military alliance originally created in 1948 between the Benelux nations, France, and Great Britain. Renamed Western European Union in 1955. These members Joined NATO in 1949 but retained also their independent alliance, a strictly European one.

CAPITALISM: the free enterprise system whereby individuals invest money to make a profit, which is payment for lending money. A person who owns a share of stock in a company is a capitalist. As a propaganda word, intending to convey a selective interpretation, it is used to denote ownership of property by a very small minority, supposedly at the expense of the so-called propertyless who form the great majority. It should be noted that communist countries have capital to be invested in economic enterprises, but the profits are used by the state as it determines. Competition which might benefit the consumer would be labelled exploitation if anyone made a personal profit.

CENTO: see Baghdad Pact.


COEXISTENCE: usually in the phrase peaceful coexistence, is a term used originally by Khrushchev to indicate the absence of war between the U.S.S.R. and its adversaries, but not the absence of ideological differences.

COLD WAR: a policy and condition of opposition and tension without actual war. The condition has existed between the U.S.S.R. and the western powers since 1947, and is responsible for the involvement of the United States in NATO, SEATO, etc.

COLLECTIVE ACTION: see Collective Security.

COLLECTIVE SECURITY: is the policy by which nations agree to guarantee each other’s security, by force if necessary. Thus collective action is necessary to make collective security effective.

COLLECTIVISM: an economic term which includes all types of central ownership by the State, i.e., Socialism in Great Britain under the Labor Party, Corporativism in Italy under Mussolini, and Communism in the U.S.S.R.

COLOMBO PLAN: in January 1950 the British Commonwealth members devised a plan for cooperative development of South and South east Asia countries: Burma, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, Ceylon, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaya, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Thailand, Viet Nam, totalling about one quarter of the world’s population. The British Commonwealth nations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, cooperated to plan public administration, agriculture, industry, training of personnel, health services, scientific research.

COLONY: an area of land completely subject to control by a nation, and not an integral part of that nation.

CCMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance): an organization set up in 1948 for the development and coordination of national economies in Eastern Europe—all communist countries.

COMINFORM: in 1947 the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) was established in Belgrade to coordinate the activities of communist parties under the leadership of Moscow. Officially dissolved in 1956, perhaps as a gesture by the U.S.S.R.

COMINTERN (Communist International): originally the Third Workingmen’s International founded in 1919 in Moscow as the headquarters of the organization dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism. Officially, perhaps only ostensibly, dissolved in 1943, and replaced in 1947 officially by the Cominform.

COMMON LAW: unlike written or statute law, consisted of customs and judicial decisions which became precedents for future decisions on similar issues.

COMMON MARKET: see European Economic Community.

COMMUNISM: in theory the community (as opposed to private) ownership of all means of production and distribution. In practice, communism has shown itself to be also political dictatorship and a revolutionary movement dedicated to the violent overthrow of capitalism. In recent years the U.S.S.R. claims to have rejected the use of violence.

CONCENTRATION, THEORY OF: a Marxian theory that larger capitalists (property owners) absorb or destroy smaller ones, until all capital and property is concentrated in the hands of a very few enterprises and bankers. This is the condition, according to Marx, when violent revolution will eliminate capitalism.

CONCORDAT: an agreement between Popes and governments establishing the rights and duties of the Catholic clergy.

CONDOMINIUM: the rule of a territory by two countries. For example, the Sudan was ruled jointly by Great Britain and Egypt until it became independent in 1956.

CONFEDERATION: an association or alliance of independent states, working together for common purposes, but without a central government to control the constituent parts, as in a federation.

CORPORATIVE STATE: sometimes Corporate State, is a country, such as Italy under Mussolini, in which corporations or associations of workmen and employers select members of the legislature, and institute rules for wages, hours, conditions of labor. Not a free enterprise.


COUP D’ETAT: a sudden change of government, usually started by a group within the existing government. Not a revolution, in which a great part of a nation may be engaged. Examples: Suharto in Indonesia, restricting Sukarno’s power; the ousting of Nkrumah from Ghana.

CURZON LINE: a proposal named after Lord Curzon to settle the disputed frontier between Poland and Russia in 1920. It was an essentially fair proposal based on racial considerations. Was rejected by the Poles, who subsequently pushed their frontier farther eastward. In 1939 the Curzon Line became the frontier in Poland between the Russian and Nazi troops after Germany invaded Poland.

DARDANELLES: the Straits or channel in Turkey leading from the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmora, and on into the Black Sea. A very strategic waterway which Czarist and Soviet Russia have for more than 125 years attempted to control.

DE FACTO, DE JURE RECOGNITION: a nation which receives de facto recognition is Considered to have an effective government, even though it may have come to power by revolutionary means. Such recognition is preliminary, sometimes only tentative, and simply accepts the situation that a government does in fact exist. This does not necessarily indicate approval or disapproval.

Dejure recognition is full, legal recognition of a new state or government, and is usually accompanied by the exchange of diplomatic officials. Such governments have usually come into existence by peaceful, constitutional means.

DECEMBRISTS: in St. Petersburg in December 1825 some Russian officers wanted to institute reforms in the government. The movement was divided because some members wanted to force the Czar to abdicate and set up a republic; others wanted to restrict the Czar’s powers; and others wanted to free the serfs. Four leaders of the conspiracy were executed, and 120 were exiled to Siberia. The conspiracy only confirmed Nicholas I’s distrust in liberal ideas.

DEDUCTIVE REASONING: proceeds from general statements to particular application. For example the Scholastics who claimed that since the sun was an immovable object it could not rotate on its axis, as Galileo claimed, were deductive thinkers.

DEFLATION: an economic condition in which there is a reduction in the amount of available money, or a reduction in proportion to goods available on the market. Prices drop because less money buys more goods; wages drop, unemployment may result. See Inflation.

DEISM: the belief in an impersonal Deity which made the laws discovered by scientists.

DEMARCHE: in diplomatic language this is a proceeding, a step forward.

DETENTE: a reduction in or a cessation of strained relations between nations.

DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM: dialectic is the art of logical argument, materialism is the belief that essential changes in history have been economic; thus, according to the dialectical process, all things change in a prescribed pattern. Thus the class struggle is exemplified in the Bourgeois (thesis), and its opposite the Proletariat (antithesis), resulting in the Socialist Revolution (synthesis). According to Marx, all human history has developed as a dialectical process.

DIALECTICS: a process of reasoned argument based upon change, as stated by Hegel: from a thesis (German disunity in mid-l9th century), and its opposite, the antithesis (German unity), from both of which would come the synthesis (the ideal German state).

DICTATORSHIP: absolute rule by one person or group.

DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT: in theory a temporary period of dictatorship by the working class in order to eliminate all opposing ideas. When such opposition was eliminated, the dictatorship would cease, since there would be one class only. This was Lenin’s theory, if not the fact.

DOLLAR GAP: for the United States a dollar gap would be the difference between purchases abroad and smaller sales abroad. The U.S.A. would therefore spend more dollars than she received in the equivalent of pounds sterling from Britain or francs from France. The foreign government would then demand that the U.S. dollar bills be redeemed, or exchanged for gold. This could result in the "dollar drain" from the U.S., and therefore the dollar gap.

DOMINION: the term as used by Great Britain referred to a colony which received the right of self-government in domestic, but not foreign, affairs. This policy was initiated by the British North America Act of 1867 (commemorated by Expo 67 in Canada in 1967). After the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 the dominions became completely free and independent sovereign nations. They chose to remain associated with Great Britain in the British Commonwealth of (Independent) Nations.

DREIKAISERBUND: or League of Three Emperors of Germany, Austria, and Russia. Devised by Bismarck in 1873, and was simply an understanding of common interests among the three nations.

DUE PROCESS OF LAW: means the use of the established procedure laid down in a constitution. For example, a citizen cannot be sentenced without a fair and proper trial.

DUMA: a Russian parliament created by Czar Nicholas II after the 1905 Revolution. There were four Dumas between 1905 and 1916.

DYARCHY: a rule by two authorities. For example, the Roman emperor Augustus and the Senate technically had joint authority.

DYNASTY: a succession of rulers of the same family.

ECONOMIC DETERMINISM: Marx claimed that since the conditions which most powerfully affected history were economic ones, then history was determined or changed by economic factors.

EISENHOWER DOCTRINE: was proposed by President Eisenhower in 1957, that the United States assist any nation in the Middle East, when aid was requested, against communist internal subversion or overt external aggression. Example, the Lebanon incident in 1958.

ENCIRCLEMENT (EINKREISUNG): before both World Wars Germany claimed that alliances to prevent German expansion were encirclement denying her the necessary right to get more living-room - lebensraum.

ENCYCLICAL: from the Latin bulla encyclica, meaning a circular letter, sent out by the Pope to all bishops, dealing with questions of faith, morals, or behavior. It is usually known by its opening words, such as the 1963 Pacem in terris, On peace in the world.

ENTENTE: is an understanding in diplomatic language, rather than a written agreement. The entente cordiale of 1904 between Great Britain and France was the removal of obstacles to common action.

EURATOM: European Atomic Energy Community. An organization established by France, the German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux countries in 1958, to plan research on atomic energy and a market for nuclear products.

EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY: in 1952 the Benelux nations, France, Italy, and Western Germany planned to control the production and marketing of coal and steel in their countries, and modernize their industries.

EUROPEAN DEFENSE COMMUNITY (EDC): an unsuccessful attempt by most of the NATO nations (not including the United States and Great Britain) to set up a supra-national authority with common armed forces and budget, supposedly to be a tighter group than NATO.

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (Common Market or Inner Six): on January 1, 1958 France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations organized as a common market which by 1966 would eliminate all customs barriers between them, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital.

EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION (EFTA): an association of western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members:

Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven, i.e., outside the Common Market.

EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM (MARSHALL PLAN): in June 1947, in a commencement speech at Harvard, the United States Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a plan to assist European nations to return to economic health in a world without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. The basic concept was not charity but a joint operation of the United States to help European nations to help themselves. Communist countries, although invited to participate, were not allowed by the U.S.S.R. to do so. Sixteen nations accepted the United States’ offer: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey.

FASCISM: the political and economic methods under Mussolini in Italy. The name comes from the fasces or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the symbol of authority in Rome. Mussolini adopted this symbol as emblematic of the new corporative state.

FERTILE CRESCENT: was the fertile region that stretched through the valleys of the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers, which in ancient times was the site of several river civilizations.

FIFTH COLUMN: during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 the rebels under Franco attacked Madrid with four columns of troops. Inside the city Franco’ 5 supporters organized sabotage as the fifth column.

FIFTH REPUBLIC: was established in France in October 1958. The 1st Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the 2nd lasted between 1848 and 1852; the 3rd between 1875 and 1945; the 4th from 1946 to 1958.

FLEMINGS: the predominantly Flemish-speaking inhabitants of northern Belgium. They outnumber the Walloons, and are generally Catholic, royalist. See Walloons.

FREE FRENCH: French supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in June 1940. In 1944 de Gaulle’s French Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional Government.

FREE TRADE: an economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no protection in the form of tariffs against foreign competition.

FRENCH COUMUNITY: in 1958 the African colonies of France, except Guinea, voted under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic to become a community of independent states in association with France. Guinea voted to become completely independent of France. By 1961 all members of the community voted to become independent sovereign nations.

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade): came into force in 1948, when several nations agreed to negotiate on tariff reduction. Usually negotiated between individual countries. Most of the world’s trade is controlled by nations agreeing to GATT.

GEOPOLITICS: is the study of strategic geographical positions as important political objectives. For example, the Panama Canal is a strategic geographical waterway with obvious political importance.

GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC: is usually known as East Germany, which, according to an agreement between it and the U.S.S.R. in 1955, became a sovereign, independent state. The western powers do not recognize it as an independent nation.

GERMAN FEDERAL REPUBLIC: is a federation of West German states, established in 1949 by the United States, Great Britain, and France, and became the independent republic in 1955, with Bonn as its capital. Frequently referred to as West Germany.

HERESY: is any doctrine which challenged the official Church doctrine or orthodoxy.

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE: the Empire was organized under Otto I, who was crowned Emperor by the Pope in 962 A.D. It consisted largely of German and Italian territory. The Emperor represented the former tradition of European unity under an authority appointed by the Pope. By the 15th century it was practically no more than a name. It was officially dissolved by Napoleon in 1806.

HOME RULE: is responsible government for the internal affairs of a former colony, although foreign affairs usually remain under the control of the mother country. Britain recognized such an area as a dominion, which carried the connotation of internal self-government.

IMPERIALISM: is the acquisition and administration of colonial areas, usually in the interests of the administering country.

INDUCTIVE REASONING: proceeds from particular instances and examples to a general rule, the accumulation of enough facts to establish a general position.

INFLATION: is an increase in the amount of money in relation to available goods, or a drop in goods available in relation to money. Prices increase, sales may drop since prices are high in relation to wages. Governments like to avoid both inflation and deflation, since both may result in economic dislocation.

INITIATIVE: is the process which permits voters to start or initiate legislation themselves, or order the legislature to introduce legislation desired by the voters.

INNER SIX: see Common Market.

IRON CURTAIN: was the phrase coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to designate the frontier dividing the communist states of Europe (U.S.S.R., Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania) from Western Europe, a frontier stretching from Stettin on the Baltic Sea to Trieste on the Adriatic.

IRREDENTISM: was the demand to recover what a nation regarded as lost territory. For example, Italy in 1870 considered that Trieste, Nice, Savoy, among other areas, as Italia Irredenta, unredeemed Italy, which must some day be incorporated within the nation.

KELLOGG PACT (KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT, PACT OF PARIS, 1928): outlawed war as an instrument of national policy, except for self-defense. It contained no machinery for enforcement of the agreement.

KULTURKAMPF: Battle of Ideas, a term describing the conflict between Bismarck and the Catholic Church in Germany. Bismarck objected to the influence of the Church upon the citizen in political affairs, particularly after the formation of the Catholic Center Party. The Kulturkampf denied the right of priests to refer to politics in their sermons. Priests were imprisoned for ignoring Bismarck’s orders.

KUOMINTANG: the Chinese Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen, later under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. In 1949 it was defeated by the Communists under Mao Tse-tung and withdrew to the island of Formosa (Taipan).

LABOR THEORY OF VALUE: is the Marxian belief that the value of an article is determined by the amount of labor put into it. Actually, those who provide materials, tools, goods, ideas, marketing techniques also contribute to the value of an article.

LAISSEZ-FAIRE: is the economic doctrine of the complete absence of government restrictions on any aspect of the economy. Literally, leave alone; colloquially, hands off.

LEGITIMISTS: are advocates of the return to thrones of monarchs with claims of direct (legitimate) descent. Applied particularly to the Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815.

MANCHUKUO: after the Japanese took Manchuria in 1931, they renamed it Manchukuo, made Henry Pu Yi, the last Manchu emperor of China, deposed in 1911, the Emperor of Manchukuo, a puppet of the Japanese government.

MARCH ON ROME: in 1922 Mussolini demanded the formation of a Fascist government, and urged his followers to go to Rome to demonstrate, after the Fascists had seized power in several cities. King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed the prime Minister and invited Mussolini to come to Rome from Milan. Contrary to the Fascist myth that Mussolini marched on Rome, the fact is that he came by train.

MARSHALL PLAN (EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM): was a cooperative plan proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947 offering to help all nations help themselves back to economic recovery. Nations submitted proposals of what they could do for themselves, and what they needed. The United States contributed $18 billion dollars in four years, which represented 25 per cent of the total cost of European recovery, with the participating European nations contributing the other 75 per cent.

MARXISM-LENINISM: Marxism is the belief that a class struggle exists. Leninism is the organization of extremists to precipitate the class struggle into violent action. Thus the theory of Marx is implemented by the practice of Lenin.

MENSHEVIKS: were the moderates of the Russian Social Democrat party, opposed by the more radical Bolsheviks. Derivation, menshintsvo, a minority.

NARODNIKI: a secret Russian revolutionary society of 1873 which attempted to win over the peasants. University students dressed as peasants and went out to the farms, but their socialist doctrines were not popular with the peasants, and the movement not only failed completely but was savagely persecuted by the Czarist government.

NATION: a group of people who are bound together by common ties of history, language, customs, and probably with a clearly defined boundary.

NATIONALIZATION: is the acquisition by the State of any means of production or distribution. For example, the British Labor Party believes in common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange. In l945-l95O it nationalized railroads, coal, electricity, gas, transportation. It exchanged government bonds for company shares held by citizens in the private businesses.

NEUTRALISM: is the policy of not siding with any group or country, in peacetime. Thus for many years India was neutralist and would not commit itself to the policies of the western nations or the Communist bloc.

NEUTRALITY: is non-participation in war, the condition of remaining a neutral and of taking no sides.

NIHILISM: is a philosophical belief which accepts no authority and insists upon the sovereignty of the individual. It is not a political doctrine, as is anarchism. Derivation, nihil, meaning nothing.

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): an organization in 1948 of the Brussels Treaty Organization (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, France, United Kingdom) and the United States, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal. The members agreed that an attack upon one would be regarded as an attack upon all, and that each would assist "as it deems necessary." The Treaty declared its purpose to safeguard the freedom, common heritage, and civilization of their peoples founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. The German Federal Republic, Greece, and Turkey joined later.

NORTH VIET NAM: in July 1954 the French and the Viet Minh signed the Geneva Accord or Agreement which recognized Viet Nam as one state divided temporarily into two zones by the cease-fire line, and provided for a general election to unite the two zones. The southern zone, or South Viet Nam, did not ratify the Agreement and refused to permit an election on the grounds that it would not be conducted fairly.

OAS - ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES: was set up in 1948 at the Ninth International Conference of American States, in Colombia, to coordinate the work of its members, to attempt to settle disputes between members, to protect its members against aggression.

ODER-NEISSE LINE: is the boundary between Poland and East Germany, formed by the Oder and Neisse rivers. Accepted by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference of 1945. German territory east of the line was transferred to Poland, and was about one-fifth of Germany’s prewar area.

OECD - ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: was established in 1961 by the same nations as in OEEC, plus Canada, the German Federal Republic, Japan, Spain, and the United States, to succeed OEEC. Purposes: (l)to facilitate world trade, (2)to coordinate economic policies, (3)to aid the economic expansion of nations.

OEEC - ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION: was set up in response to the Marshall Plan to coordinate the economies of the several nations receiving aid under the European Recovery Program. Members:

Benelux, Austria, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey.

OUTER SEVEN (EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION): referred to as the Outer Seven in contrast to the Inner Six of the Common Market. The members in 1967 are Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States, who agree to eliminate over a period of time tariff and trade restrictions between each other.

PHILOSOPHY: is the study of the causes and relations of things and ideas. Greek philosophers attempted to explain the origin, the structure, and the meaning of the universe. General laws that provide the rational explanation of anything.

PIETISM: is a belief that religion is a matter of faith, and not simply a matter of dogma and doctrine.

PLURALITY: the largest bloc of 3 or more blocs of votes, but less than a majority. For example, in the following three party election, Party A 40 per cent, Party B 35 per cent, Party C 25 per cent, Party A has a plurality and wins the election.

POLITICAL PARTY: consists of people with the same political ideas, who organize to get their candidates into office in order to pass laws in their interests. A majority political party acknowledges the right of the minority party to become the majority by peaceful means. Any dictatorial party such as the Nazi or Communist is not a political party in the accepted definition.

POWER OF THE PURSE: is the power held by whatever body controls the levying and the spending of income. The power to spend the money is the power to determine policy, i.e., what shall be done.

PROPAGANDA: originally meant the dissemination of information, from the word propagate. However, during two world wars the word acquired a special connotation, in the sense that a desired purpose, other than simple information, is to be achieved. Today propaganda not infrequently means the withholding of vital information in order to achieve a desired purpose. If the vital information were not withheld, a different decision might result.

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION: is representation for all political parties entered on a ballot, in proportion to the votes won by each party.

PROTECTORATE: is a territory which is under the protection or jurisdiction of another state, although not annexed to it.

RAPPROCHEMENT: in diplomatic language is the reestablishing of good relations between nations.

RECALL: is the process by which voters may remove officials from public office before the expiration of their terms.

REFERENDUM: is the referring to the voters of a piece of legislation for their approval or disapproval.

RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT: in British usage means that the prime minister and his cabinet are responsible or answerable to the House of Commons for their actions, since they are leaders chosen by the majority party. As responsible ministers they are subject to removal by the wishes of the majority of the House of Commons.

REVOLUTION: usually a fundamental change in a political system, replacing one government with an entirely different one, i.e., the American and French revolutions.

RISORGIMENTO: is an Italian word meaning resurrection applied politically to the Italian movement of the 19th century for unification of Italy. Although the acquisition by Italy in 1919 of the Trentino, Istria, South Tyrol was regarded by many as the completion of Risorgimento, Mussolini chose to revive the term Italia Irredenta in his demands for Nice, Savoy, Corsica .

SANCTIONS: is a term meaning economic restrictions or boycott. The League of Nations ordered sanctions on Italy after her attack upon Ethiopia in 1935. Since oil and steel were exempted from the sanctions, and since Mussolini could not have conducted the war without those vital materials, the whole purpose of sanctions was nullified, and sanctions died right then and there.

SELF-DETERMINATION: is the ability of a racial group to determine how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as an integral part of another. For example, the succession states created out of the Austrian Empire after World War I are examples of peoples who decided for independence.

SEPARATISM: is a belief or movement advocating separation from a larger group. Many separatists in Quebec want that province to sever all connections with Canada and become independent.

SOCIALISM: is (l)an economic belief that the means of production and distribution should be owned by the state, and (2)a political belief that this economic objective should be attained through the free choice of the electorate, which should have the opportunity to replace such an economic system if it so wishes. The political difference between Socialism and Communism is that communism has not yet permitted free and open elections.

SUCCESSION STATES: are those states or parts of states which were formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and became independent after World War I. Separate nations were Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia. Some parts of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire were given to Italy, Poland, Rumania.

SURPLUS VALUE: was, according to Marx, the difference between the cost of an article and its selling price. Of this difference the worker, according to Marx, was robbed.

THEOCRACY: is a state ruled by a Church, usually limiting the right to vote and to hold office to those who are admitted to membership in the Church.

THIRD REICH: was the name given to Germany during the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945. The Nazis claimed that the First Reich was from 963-1806 A.D. (the Holy Roman Empire), and the Second Reich was between 1871 and 1918 (The German Empire of William I and II). Hitler claimed that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years.

TOTALITARIAN: is a stronger term than authoritarian since a totalitarian system extends its control over every aspect of a citizen’s life, and demands total subjection to the demands of the State.

TRUMAN DOCTRINE: was the statement made by president Truman in 1947 when he asked for aid for Greece and Turkey which were being subjected to Communist pressure, and announced the need of supporting free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure.

UNESCO - UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION: an agency of the United Nations to contribute to peace by assisting education, the natural and social sciences, cultural activities, rehabilitation, mass communication, and technical assistance to various parts of the world.

UNICEF - UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S EMERGENCY FUND: originally designed to help child welfare and health programs in countries devastated by World War II, it has been expanded to include the children of emergent countries, providing milk, clothing, medical assistance to children throughout the world.

UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC: officially created in February 1958 by the union of Egypt and Syria. In September 1961 a coup d’etat in Syria dissolved the union, but Egypt retained the name of United Arab Republic.

UNRRA - UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION: instituted in 1943 to bring relief to refugees, and rehabilitation to the Industries and economies of nations.

VATICAN CITY: since 1929 the .16 square miles or about 100 acres of territory in Rome is the smallest independent sovereign state in Europe. In 1870 the Papal States in Italy were incorporated, over the Pope’s protest, into the Kingdom of Italy. From that date until 1929 the several Popes refused to acknowledge Italy’s action and refused to step outside the Vatican. Mussolini resolved the issue in the Lateran Agreement of 1929, which established the Vatican as a separate state within the city of Rome.

VIET MINH: an organization started in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh to resist Japan in Indo-China. Later became active against the French, from 1946-1954, and succeeded in driving the French from Indo-China.

WALLOONS: are the predominantly French-speaking citizens of southern Belgium, generally anti-Catholic, and anti-royalist. They inhabit the predominantly industrialized area of Belgium.

WARSAW PACT - EASTERN EUROPEAN MUTUAL ASSISTANCE TREATY: a 20-year treaty of mutual assistance and cooperation between the U.S.S.R., Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German People’s Republic (East Germany), Hungary, Poland, Rumania, signed in 1951. Established unified military command, with each nation agreeing to give assistance to any member attacked in Europe.

WEIMAR REPUBLIC: is the name given to Germany’s first federal republic, named after its capital, Weimar. Created in 1919 it lasted until 1933 when Hitler came to power. The Allies, after World War I, forced its representatives to sign the Versailles Treaty which, among other features, charged Germany with the sole guilt for the war. Thus Germany’s first republican government got off to an inauspicious start, since Germans were later to identify democracy with what they regarded as a dictated peace.

WEST IRIAN: formerly the Netherlands New Guinea, it is the western part of the island of New Guinea, which became a province of Indonesia in 1963.

ZIONISM: is the belief in the establishment of a separate home for the Jewish people. The movement was founded in the late 19th century by Theodor Herzl, and was supported by Chaim Weizmann during World War I. Britain supported the general idea of a Jewish homeland in the official Balfour Declaration of 1917.