ABSOLUTISM: the doctrine or practice of government unrestricted by
representation or another means.
AFRIKANER: a member of the white race in the Republic of South Africa.
The language, Afrikaans, originates from the early Dutch settlers. Natives
are designated as Africans or Bantus.
AFRO-ASIAN (BANDUNG) CONFERENCE: held in April 1955, was the first
international conference of African and Asian peoples: Ethiopia, Gold Coast
(later Ghana), Egypt, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey,
Yemen, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Cambodia, Ceylon, China, India,
Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, North Viet
Nam, South Viet Nam. The conference passed resolutions condemning
imperialism, supporting self-determination, and economic and cultural
AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (AID): a U.S. government agency to
administer economic assistance schemes.
ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS: (Al ianza para el progreso), is a United States
sponsored and assisted movement, supported by 20 Latin American countries to
coordinate and develop Latin American economics and to raise the standard of
AMNESTY: pardon for political offenders, although the term is sometimes
used to include tax violators.
ANARCHISM: political doctrine of individualists who advocate the
elimination of organized government. In pure theory, anarchists believe that
men are so inherently good that rules are unnecessary. Anarchists have
performed independent acts of violence. Derivation from the Greek
anarchia, meaning non-rule.
ANSCHLUSS: was the union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the
occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938. Austria was actually
absorbed into Germany as Ostmark.
ANTI-CLERICALISM: opposition to organized religion. The name for any
policy which wishes to subordinate the Church to the State.
APARTHEID: pronounced apart-ate, and means literally apart-ness,
and is the policy of the whites in the Republic of South Africa of literal
segregation of blacks from whites. The natives have no rights other than
those permitted by the whites. Apartheid is complete racial inequality.
APPEASEMENT: the making of concessions to an adversary in the hopes of
avoiding trouble. Usually a policy of acting from weakness. It is not
synonymous with compromise, a policy in which each adversary makes
concessions to the other, and wins gains.
ARAB LEAGUE: a loose confederation or association of Arab countries,
reflecting Arab nationalist sentiments. Has consistently opposed the
existence of Israel and French control of Algeria.
ATLANTIC CHARTER: a joint declaration in August, 1941, by president
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, stating common principles for the
future of the world. Although the United States was not involved in the war,
it expressed its support for all people of the principles of (1)
self-determination, (2)the right of free choice of government, (3)equal
opportunities for all nations for trade, (4)permanent system of general
security and disarmament.
AUTARCHY, AUTARKY: means self-sufficiency, the ability of a nation to
produce all its needs, without dependence upon other nations. Derivation,
from the Greek autarkeia, self-rule.
AUTHORITARIAN: a system of strong national government, essentially
AUTONOMY: means literally self-rule, but in historical
practice has frequently meant virtual independence with some nominal
subordination. After the Congress of Berlin, 1878, Bulgaria was divided into
3 zones, each with varying degrees of self-government, but still nominally
within the Turkish Empire.
BAGHDAD PACT (Central Treaty Organization, CENTO): a treaty of 1955 between
Iraq and Turkey, joined by Great Britain, Pakistan, and Iran for common
purposes of security and defense. In 1959, after the withdrawal of Iraq, was
renamed the Central Treaty Organization, with headquarters at Ankara.
BALANCE OF POWER: the foreign policy of two or more nations cooperating
together in order to prevent one nation from becoming predominant over
others. Under this policy alliances are sometimes formed.
BALFOUR DECLARATION: a letter of November, 1917 from Arthur J. Balfour,
British Foreign Secretary, to Lord Rothschild, Chairman of the Zionist
Federation, stating that the British government favored a national home
for the Jewish people in Palestine. Resulted ultimately in the
establishment of Israel in 1948.
BANDUNG CONFERENCE: (Afro-Asian Conference), of 28 Afro-Asian countries
at Bandung, Indonesia, in April, 1955. It was the first such Afro-Asian
conference, and while it passed resolutions opposing colonialism and
supporting self-determination, it condemned communism as
BANTUSTAN: an area in the Republic of South Africa set aside for
occupation by native Africans. There are 8 such Bantustans, occupying 14 per
cent of the land area for some 70 per cent of the population. Sometimes
designated as native Reserves.
BENELUX: a convenient abbreviation of Belgium, the Netherlands, and
Luxembourg, when these three nations are working together for common
BIPARTISAN FOREIGN POLICY: a foreign policy in which two opposing
political parties agree upon common objectives and action in order to
present a united national front in foreign affairs.
BLOCKADE: a system of preventing supplies from reaching another nation.
Although normally referring to wartime conditions in which one nations navy
prevents ships from entering another nations ports, it can be used for a
similar operation in peacetime.
BOLSHEVIKS: the radical faction of the Russian Social Democrat Party.
Derivation, bolshinstvo, a majority.
BOURGEOIS: the Marxists used this adjective to denote the attitude of the
middle class (bourgeoisie), generally in contrast to proletariat or workers.
BRITISH COMMONWEALTH: a free association of independent nations which
were formerly colonies within the British Empire. The Commonwealth has no
common head, no common government, and no member has authority over any
other member. The existing colonies are included as Empire in the
full title, British Commonwealth and Empire.
BRUSSELS TREATY ORGANIZATION (Western European Union): a military
alliance originally created in 1948 between the Benelux nations, France, and
Great Britain. Renamed Western European Union in 1955. These members Joined
NATO in 1949 but retained also their independent alliance, a strictly
CAPITALISM: the free enterprise system whereby individuals invest money to
make a profit, which is payment for lending money. A person who owns a
share of stock in a company is a capitalist. As a propaganda word, intending
to convey a selective interpretation, it is used to denote ownership of
property by a very small minority, supposedly at the expense of the
so-called propertyless who form the great majority. It should be
noted that communist countries have capital to be invested in
economic enterprises, but the profits are used by the state as it
determines. Competition which might benefit the consumer would be labelled
exploitation if anyone made a personal profit.
CENTO: see Baghdad Pact.
CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION: see Baghdad Pact.
COEXISTENCE: usually in the phrase peaceful coexistence, is a term
used originally by Khrushchev to indicate the absence of war between the
U.S.S.R. and its adversaries, but not the absence of ideological
COLD WAR: a policy and condition of opposition and tension without actual
war. The condition has existed between the U.S.S.R. and the western powers
since 1947, and is responsible for the involvement of the United States in
NATO, SEATO, etc.
COLLECTIVE ACTION: see Collective Security.
COLLECTIVE SECURITY: is the policy by which nations agree to guarantee
each others security, by force if necessary. Thus collective action is
necessary to make collective security effective.
COLLECTIVISM: an economic term which includes all types of central
ownership by the State, i.e., Socialism in Great Britain under the Labor
Party, Corporativism in Italy under Mussolini, and Communism in the U.S.S.R.
COLOMBO PLAN: in January 1950 the British Commonwealth members devised a
plan for cooperative development of South and South east Asia countries:
Burma, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, Ceylon, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos,
Malaya, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Thailand, Viet Nam,
totalling about one quarter of the worlds population. The British
Commonwealth nations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United
Kingdom, cooperated to plan public administration, agriculture, industry,
training of personnel, health services, scientific research.
COLONY: an area of land completely subject to control by a nation, and
not an integral part of that nation.
CCMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance): an organization set up
in 1948 for the development and coordination of national economies in
Eastern Europeall communist countries.
COMINFORM: in 1947 the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) was
established in Belgrade to coordinate the activities of communist parties
under the leadership of Moscow. Officially dissolved in 1956, perhaps as a
gesture by the U.S.S.R.
COMINTERN (Communist International): originally the Third Workingmens
International founded in 1919 in Moscow as the headquarters of the
organization dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism. Officially, perhaps
only ostensibly, dissolved in 1943, and replaced in 1947 officially by the
COMMON LAW: unlike written or statute law, consisted of customs and
judicial decisions which became precedents for future decisions on similar
COMMON MARKET: see European Economic Community.
COMMUNISM: in theory the community (as opposed to private) ownership of
all means of production and distribution. In practice, communism has shown
itself to be also political dictatorship and a revolutionary movement
dedicated to the violent overthrow of capitalism. In recent years the
U.S.S.R. claims to have rejected the use of violence.
CONCENTRATION, THEORY OF: a Marxian theory that larger capitalists
(property owners) absorb or destroy smaller ones, until all capital and
property is concentrated in the hands of a very few enterprises and bankers.
This is the condition, according to Marx, when violent revolution will
CONCORDAT: an agreement between Popes and governments establishing the
rights and duties of the Catholic clergy.
CONDOMINIUM: the rule of a territory by two countries. For example, the
Sudan was ruled jointly by Great Britain and Egypt until it became
independent in 1956.
CONFEDERATION: an association or alliance of independent states, working
together for common purposes, but without a central government to control
the constituent parts, as in a federation.
CORPORATIVE STATE: sometimes Corporate State, is a country, such as Italy
under Mussolini, in which corporations or associations of workmen and
employers select members of the legislature, and institute rules for wages,
hours, conditions of labor. Not a free enterprise.
COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE: see Comecon.
COUP DETAT: a sudden change of government, usually started by a group
within the existing government. Not a revolution, in which a great part of a
nation may be engaged. Examples: Suharto in Indonesia, restricting Sukarnos
power; the ousting of Nkrumah from Ghana.
CURZON LINE: a proposal named after Lord Curzon to settle the disputed
frontier between Poland and Russia in 1920. It was an essentially fair
proposal based on racial considerations. Was rejected by the Poles, who
subsequently pushed their frontier farther eastward. In 1939 the Curzon Line
became the frontier in Poland between the Russian and Nazi troops after
Germany invaded Poland.
DARDANELLES: the Straits or channel in Turkey leading from the Aegean Sea to
the Sea of Marmora, and on into the Black Sea. A very strategic waterway
which Czarist and Soviet Russia have for more than 125 years attempted to
DE FACTO, DE JURE RECOGNITION: a nation which receives de facto
recognition is Considered to have an effective government, even though it
may have come to power by revolutionary means. Such recognition is
preliminary, sometimes only tentative, and simply accepts the situation
that a government does in fact exist. This does not necessarily
indicate approval or disapproval.
Dejure recognition is full, legal recognition of a new state or
government, and is usually accompanied by the exchange of diplomatic
officials. Such governments have usually come into existence by peaceful,
DECEMBRISTS: in St. Petersburg in December 1825 some Russian officers
wanted to institute reforms in the government. The movement was divided
because some members wanted to force the Czar to abdicate and set up a
republic; others wanted to restrict the Czars powers; and others wanted to
free the serfs. Four leaders of the conspiracy were executed, and 120 were
exiled to Siberia. The conspiracy only confirmed Nicholas Is distrust in
DEDUCTIVE REASONING: proceeds from general statements to particular
application. For example the Scholastics who claimed that since the sun was
an immovable object it could not rotate on its axis, as Galileo claimed,
were deductive thinkers.
DEFLATION: an economic condition in which there is a reduction in the
amount of available money, or a reduction in proportion to goods available
on the market. Prices drop because less money buys more goods; wages drop,
unemployment may result. See Inflation.
DEISM: the belief in an impersonal Deity which made the laws discovered
DEMARCHE: in diplomatic language this is a proceeding, a step forward.
DETENTE: a reduction in or a cessation of strained relations between
DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM: dialectic is the art of logical argument,
materialism is the belief that essential changes in history have been
economic; thus, according to the dialectical process, all things change in a
prescribed pattern. Thus the class struggle is exemplified in the Bourgeois
(thesis), and its opposite the Proletariat (antithesis), resulting in the
Socialist Revolution (synthesis). According to Marx, all human history has
developed as a dialectical process.
DIALECTICS: a process of reasoned argument based upon change, as stated
by Hegel: from a thesis (German disunity in mid-l9th century), and
its opposite, the antithesis (German unity), from both of which would
come the synthesis (the ideal German state).
DICTATORSHIP: absolute rule by one person or group.
DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT: in theory a temporary period of
dictatorship by the working class in order to eliminate all opposing ideas.
When such opposition was eliminated, the dictatorship would cease, since
there would be one class only. This was Lenins theory, if not the fact.
DOLLAR GAP: for the United States a dollar gap would be the difference
between purchases abroad and smaller sales abroad. The U.S.A. would
therefore spend more dollars than she received in the equivalent of pounds
sterling from Britain or francs from France. The foreign government would
then demand that the U.S. dollar bills be redeemed, or exchanged for gold.
This could result in the "dollar drain" from the U.S., and therefore the
DOMINION: the term as used by Great Britain referred to a colony which
received the right of self-government in domestic, but not foreign, affairs.
This policy was initiated by the British North America Act of 1867
(commemorated by Expo 67 in Canada in 1967). After the passage of the
Statute of Westminster in 1931 the dominions became completely free and
independent sovereign nations. They chose to remain associated with Great
Britain in the British Commonwealth of (Independent) Nations.
DREIKAISERBUND: or League of Three Emperors of Germany, Austria,
and Russia. Devised by Bismarck in 1873, and was simply an understanding
of common interests among the three nations.
DUE PROCESS OF LAW: means the use of the established procedure laid down
in a constitution. For example, a citizen cannot be sentenced without a fair
and proper trial.
DUMA: a Russian parliament created by Czar Nicholas II after the 1905
Revolution. There were four Dumas between 1905 and 1916.
DYARCHY: a rule by two authorities. For example, the Roman emperor
Augustus and the Senate technically had joint authority.
DYNASTY: a succession of rulers of the same family.
ECONOMIC DETERMINISM: Marx claimed that since the conditions which most
powerfully affected history were economic ones, then history was
determined or changed by economic factors.
EISENHOWER DOCTRINE: was proposed by President Eisenhower in 1957, that
the United States assist any nation in the Middle East, when aid was
requested, against communist internal subversion or overt external
aggression. Example, the Lebanon incident in 1958.
ENCIRCLEMENT (EINKREISUNG): before both World Wars Germany claimed that
alliances to prevent German expansion were encirclement denying her
the necessary right to get more living-room - lebensraum.
ENCYCLICAL: from the Latin bulla encyclica, meaning a circular
letter, sent out by the Pope to all bishops, dealing with questions of
faith, morals, or behavior. It is usually known by its opening words, such
as the 1963 Pacem in terris, On peace in the world.
ENTENTE: is an understanding in diplomatic language, rather than a
written agreement. The entente cordiale of 1904 between Great Britain
and France was the removal of obstacles to common action.
EURATOM: European Atomic Energy Community. An organization established by
France, the German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux countries in
1958, to plan research on atomic energy and a market for nuclear products.
EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY: in 1952 the Benelux nations, France,
Italy, and Western Germany planned to control the production and marketing
of coal and steel in their countries, and modernize their industries.
EUROPEAN DEFENSE COMMUNITY (EDC): an unsuccessful attempt by most of the
NATO nations (not including the United States and Great Britain) to set up a
supra-national authority with common armed forces and budget, supposedly to
be a tighter group than NATO.
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (Common Market or Inner Six): on January 1,
1958 France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations
organized as a common market which by 1966 would eliminate all
customs barriers between them, would set up a common tariff policy on
imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of
workers and capital.
EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION (EFTA): an association of western
European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs.
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, Great Britain.
Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven, i.e., outside the Common Market.
EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM (MARSHALL PLAN): in June 1947, in a
commencement speech at Harvard, the United States Secretary of State George
Marshall proposed a plan to assist European nations to return to economic
health in a world without which there can be no political stability and no
assured peace. The basic concept was not charity but a joint operation
of the United States to help European nations to help themselves. Communist
countries, although invited to participate, were not allowed by the U.S.S.R.
to do so. Sixteen nations accepted the United States offer: Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Ireland,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey.
FASCISM: the political and economic methods under Mussolini in Italy. The
name comes from the fasces or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the
symbol of authority in Rome. Mussolini adopted this symbol as emblematic of
the new corporative state.
FERTILE CRESCENT: was the fertile region that stretched through the valleys
of the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers, which in ancient times was
the site of several river civilizations.
FIFTH COLUMN: during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 the rebels under
Franco attacked Madrid with four columns of troops. Inside the city Franco
5 supporters organized sabotage as the fifth column.
FIFTH REPUBLIC: was established in France in October 1958. The 1st
Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the 2nd lasted between 1848 and 1852; the
3rd between 1875 and 1945; the 4th from 1946 to 1958.
FLEMINGS: the predominantly Flemish-speaking inhabitants of northern
Belgium. They outnumber the Walloons, and are generally Catholic, royalist.
FREE FRENCH: French supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to
acknowledge the French armistice in June 1940. In 1944 de Gaulles French
Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French
FREE TRADE: an economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions
or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no protection
in the form of tariffs against foreign competition.
FRENCH COUMUNITY: in 1958 the African colonies of France, except Guinea,
voted under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic to become a community of
independent states in association with France. Guinea voted to become
completely independent of France. By 1961 all members of the community voted
to become independent sovereign nations.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade): came into force in 1948, when
several nations agreed to negotiate on tariff reduction. Usually
negotiated between individual countries. Most of the worlds trade is
controlled by nations agreeing to GATT.
GEOPOLITICS: is the study of strategic geographical positions as
important political objectives. For example, the Panama Canal is a strategic
geographical waterway with obvious political importance.
GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC: is usually known as East Germany, which,
according to an agreement between it and the U.S.S.R. in 1955, became a
sovereign, independent state. The western powers do not recognize it as an
GERMAN FEDERAL REPUBLIC: is a federation of West German states,
established in 1949 by the United States, Great Britain, and France, and
became the independent republic in 1955, with Bonn as its capital.
Frequently referred to as West Germany.
HERESY: is any doctrine which challenged the official Church doctrine or
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE: the Empire was organized under Otto I, who was crowned
Emperor by the Pope in 962 A.D. It consisted largely of German and Italian
territory. The Emperor represented the former tradition of European unity
under an authority appointed by the Pope. By the 15th century it was
practically no more than a name. It was officially dissolved by Napoleon in
HOME RULE: is responsible government for the internal affairs of a former
colony, although foreign affairs usually remain under the control of the
mother country. Britain recognized such an area as a dominion, which
carried the connotation of internal self-government.
IMPERIALISM: is the acquisition and administration of colonial areas,
usually in the interests of the administering country.
INDUCTIVE REASONING: proceeds from particular instances and examples to a
general rule, the accumulation of enough facts to establish a general
INFLATION: is an increase in the amount of money in relation to available
goods, or a drop in goods available in relation to money. Prices increase,
sales may drop since prices are high in relation to wages. Governments like
to avoid both inflation and deflation, since both may result in economic
INITIATIVE: is the process which permits voters to start or initiate
legislation themselves, or order the legislature to introduce legislation
desired by the voters.
INNER SIX: see Common Market.
IRON CURTAIN: was the phrase coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to
designate the frontier dividing the communist states of Europe (U.S.S.R.,
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania) from Western
Europe, a frontier stretching from Stettin on the Baltic Sea to Trieste on
IRREDENTISM: was the demand to recover what a nation regarded as lost
territory. For example, Italy in 1870 considered that Trieste, Nice, Savoy,
among other areas, as Italia Irredenta, unredeemed Italy, which must
some day be incorporated within the nation.
KELLOGG PACT (KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT, PACT OF PARIS, 1928): outlawed war
as an instrument of national policy, except for self-defense. It
contained no machinery for enforcement of the agreement.
KULTURKAMPF: Battle of Ideas, a term describing the conflict
between Bismarck and the Catholic Church in Germany. Bismarck objected to
the influence of the Church upon the citizen in political affairs,
particularly after the formation of the Catholic Center Party. The
Kulturkampf denied the right of priests to refer to politics in their
sermons. Priests were imprisoned for ignoring Bismarcks orders.
KUOMINTANG: the Chinese Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen, later
under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. In 1949 it was defeated by the
Communists under Mao Tse-tung and withdrew to the island of Formosa (Taipan).
LABOR THEORY OF VALUE: is the Marxian belief that the value of an article is
determined by the amount of labor put into it. Actually, those who
provide materials, tools, goods, ideas, marketing techniques also contribute
to the value of an article.
LAISSEZ-FAIRE: is the economic doctrine of the complete absence of
government restrictions on any aspect of the economy. Literally, leave
alone; colloquially, hands off.
LEGITIMISTS: are advocates of the return to thrones of monarchs with
claims of direct (legitimate) descent. Applied particularly to the Congress
of Vienna, 1814-1815.
MANCHUKUO: after the Japanese took Manchuria in 1931, they renamed it
Manchukuo, made Henry Pu Yi, the last Manchu emperor of China, deposed
in 1911, the Emperor of Manchukuo, a puppet of the Japanese government.
MARCH ON ROME: in 1922 Mussolini demanded the formation of a Fascist
government, and urged his followers to go to Rome to demonstrate, after the
Fascists had seized power in several cities. King Victor Emmanuel III
dismissed the prime Minister and invited Mussolini to come to Rome from
Milan. Contrary to the Fascist myth that Mussolini marched on Rome,
the fact is that he came by train.
MARSHALL PLAN (EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM): was a cooperative plan
proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947 offering to help all
nations help themselves back to economic recovery. Nations submitted
proposals of what they could do for themselves, and what they needed. The
United States contributed $18 billion dollars in four years, which
represented 25 per cent of the total cost of European recovery, with the
participating European nations contributing the other 75 per cent.
MARXISM-LENINISM: Marxism is the belief that a class struggle exists.
Leninism is the organization of extremists to precipitate the class struggle
into violent action. Thus the theory of Marx is implemented by the practice
MENSHEVIKS: were the moderates of the Russian Social Democrat party,
opposed by the more radical Bolsheviks. Derivation, menshintsvo, a
NARODNIKI: a secret Russian revolutionary society of 1873 which attempted to
win over the peasants. University students dressed as peasants and went
out to the farms, but their socialist doctrines were not popular with the
peasants, and the movement not only failed completely but was savagely
persecuted by the Czarist government.
NATION: a group of people who are bound together by common ties of
history, language, customs, and probably with a clearly defined boundary.
NATIONALIZATION: is the acquisition by the State of any means of
production or distribution. For example, the British Labor Party believes in
common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange.
In l945-l95O it nationalized railroads, coal, electricity, gas,
transportation. It exchanged government bonds for company shares held by
citizens in the private businesses.
NEUTRALISM: is the policy of not siding with any group or country, in
peacetime. Thus for many years India was neutralist and would not commit
itself to the policies of the western nations or the Communist bloc.
NEUTRALITY: is non-participation in war, the condition of remaining a
neutral and of taking no sides.
NIHILISM: is a philosophical belief which accepts no authority and
insists upon the sovereignty of the individual. It is not a political
doctrine, as is anarchism. Derivation, nihil, meaning nothing.
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): an organization in 1948 of the
Brussels Treaty Organization (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, France,
United Kingdom) and the United States, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy,
Norway, Portugal. The members agreed that an attack upon one would be
regarded as an attack upon all, and that each would assist "as it deems
necessary." The Treaty declared its purpose to safeguard the freedom,
common heritage, and civilization of their peoples founded on the principles
of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. The German Federal
Republic, Greece, and Turkey joined later.
NORTH VIET NAM: in July 1954 the French and the Viet Minh signed the
Geneva Accord or Agreement which recognized Viet Nam as one state divided
temporarily into two zones by the cease-fire line, and provided for a
general election to unite the two zones. The southern zone, or South Viet
Nam, did not ratify the Agreement and refused to permit an election on the
grounds that it would not be conducted fairly.
OAS - ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES: was set up in 1948 at the Ninth
International Conference of American States, in Colombia, to coordinate the
work of its members, to attempt to settle disputes between members, to
protect its members against aggression.
ODER-NEISSE LINE: is the boundary between Poland and East Germany, formed
by the Oder and Neisse rivers. Accepted by the Allies at the Potsdam
Conference of 1945. German territory east of the line was transferred to
Poland, and was about one-fifth of Germanys prewar area.
OECD - ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: was
established in 1961 by the same nations as in OEEC, plus Canada, the German
Federal Republic, Japan, Spain, and the United States, to succeed OEEC.
Purposes: (l)to facilitate world trade, (2)to coordinate economic policies,
(3)to aid the economic expansion of nations.
OEEC - ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION: was set up in
response to the Marshall Plan to coordinate the economies of the several
nations receiving aid under the European Recovery Program. Members:
Benelux, Austria, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey.
OUTER SEVEN (EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION): referred to as the Outer
Seven in contrast to the Inner Six of the Common Market. The members in 1967
are Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United
States, who agree to eliminate over a period of time tariff and trade
restrictions between each other.
PHILOSOPHY: is the study of the causes and relations of things and ideas.
Greek philosophers attempted to explain the origin, the structure, and
the meaning of the universe. General laws that provide the rational
explanation of anything.
PIETISM: is a belief that religion is a matter of faith, and not simply a
matter of dogma and doctrine.
PLURALITY: the largest bloc of 3 or more blocs of votes, but less than a
majority. For example, in the following three party election, Party A 40 per
cent, Party B 35 per cent, Party C 25 per cent, Party A has a plurality and
wins the election.
POLITICAL PARTY: consists of people with the same political ideas, who
organize to get their candidates into office in order to pass laws in their
interests. A majority political party acknowledges the right of the minority
party to become the majority by peaceful means. Any dictatorial party
such as the Nazi or Communist is not a political party in the accepted
POWER OF THE PURSE: is the power held by whatever body controls the
levying and the spending of income. The power to spend the money is the
power to determine policy, i.e., what shall be done.
PROPAGANDA: originally meant the dissemination of information, from the
word propagate. However, during two world wars the word acquired a
special connotation, in the sense that a desired purpose, other than simple
information, is to be achieved. Today propaganda not infrequently means the
withholding of vital information in order to achieve a desired purpose. If
the vital information were not withheld, a different decision might result.
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION: is representation for all political parties
entered on a ballot, in proportion to the votes won by each party.
PROTECTORATE: is a territory which is under the protection or
jurisdiction of another state, although not annexed to it.
RAPPROCHEMENT: in diplomatic language is the reestablishing of good
relations between nations.
RECALL: is the process by which voters may remove officials from public
office before the expiration of their terms.
REFERENDUM: is the referring to the voters of a piece of legislation for
their approval or disapproval.
RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT: in British usage means that the prime minister
and his cabinet are responsible or answerable to the House of Commons for
their actions, since they are leaders chosen by the majority party. As
responsible ministers they are subject to removal by the wishes of the
majority of the House of Commons.
REVOLUTION: usually a fundamental change in a political system, replacing
one government with an entirely different one, i.e., the American and French
RISORGIMENTO: is an Italian word meaning resurrection applied
politically to the Italian movement of the 19th century for unification of
Italy. Although the acquisition by Italy in 1919 of the Trentino, Istria,
South Tyrol was regarded by many as the completion of Risorgimento,
Mussolini chose to revive the term Italia Irredenta in his demands
for Nice, Savoy, Corsica .
SANCTIONS: is a term meaning economic restrictions or boycott. The League of
Nations ordered sanctions on Italy after her attack upon Ethiopia in
1935. Since oil and steel were exempted from the sanctions, and since
Mussolini could not have conducted the war without those vital materials,
the whole purpose of sanctions was nullified, and sanctions died right then
SELF-DETERMINATION: is the ability of a racial group to determine how it
wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as an integral part of
another. For example, the succession states created out of the
Austrian Empire after World War I are examples of peoples who decided for
SEPARATISM: is a belief or movement advocating separation from a larger
group. Many separatists in Quebec want that province to sever all
connections with Canada and become independent.
SOCIALISM: is (l)an economic belief that the means of production
and distribution should be owned by the state, and (2)a political
belief that this economic objective should be attained through the free
choice of the electorate, which should have the opportunity to replace such
an economic system if it so wishes. The political difference between
Socialism and Communism is that communism has not yet permitted free and
SUCCESSION STATES: are those states or parts of states which were
formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and became independent after
World War I. Separate nations were Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Yugoslavia. Some parts of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire were given to
Italy, Poland, Rumania.
SURPLUS VALUE: was, according to Marx, the difference between the cost of
an article and its selling price. Of this difference the worker, according
to Marx, was robbed.
THEOCRACY: is a state ruled by a Church, usually limiting the right to vote
and to hold office to those who are admitted to membership in the
THIRD REICH: was the name given to Germany during the Nazi regime between
1933 and 1945. The Nazis claimed that the First Reich was from 963-1806 A.D.
(the Holy Roman Empire), and the Second Reich was between 1871 and 1918 (The
German Empire of William I and II). Hitler claimed that the Third Reich
would last for a thousand years.
TOTALITARIAN: is a stronger term than authoritarian since a
totalitarian system extends its control over every aspect of a citizens
life, and demands total subjection to the demands of the State.
TRUMAN DOCTRINE: was the statement made by president Truman in 1947 when
he asked for aid for Greece and Turkey which were being subjected to
Communist pressure, and announced the need of supporting free peoples who
are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure.
UNESCO - UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANIZATION: an agency of the United Nations to contribute to peace by
assisting education, the natural and social sciences, cultural activities,
rehabilitation, mass communication, and technical assistance to various
parts of the world.
UNICEF - UNITED NATIONS CHILDRENS EMERGENCY FUND: originally designed to
help child welfare and health programs in countries devastated by World War
II, it has been expanded to include the children of emergent countries,
providing milk, clothing, medical assistance to children throughout the
UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC: officially created in February 1958 by the union of
Egypt and Syria. In September 1961 a coup detat in Syria dissolved
the union, but Egypt retained the name of United Arab Republic.
UNRRA - UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION:
instituted in 1943 to bring relief to refugees, and rehabilitation to the
Industries and economies of nations.
VATICAN CITY: since 1929 the .16 square miles or about 100 acres of
territory in Rome is the smallest independent sovereign state in Europe.
In 1870 the Papal States in Italy were incorporated, over the Popes
protest, into the Kingdom of Italy. From that date until 1929 the several
Popes refused to acknowledge Italys action and refused to step outside the
Vatican. Mussolini resolved the issue in the Lateran Agreement of 1929,
which established the Vatican as a separate state within the city of Rome.
VIET MINH: an organization started in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh to resist Japan
in Indo-China. Later became active against the French, from 1946-1954, and
succeeded in driving the French from Indo-China.
WALLOONS: are the predominantly French-speaking citizens of southern
Belgium, generally anti-Catholic, and anti-royalist. They inhabit the
predominantly industrialized area of Belgium.
WARSAW PACT - EASTERN EUROPEAN MUTUAL ASSISTANCE TREATY: a 20-year treaty
of mutual assistance and cooperation between the U.S.S.R., Albania,
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Peoples Republic (East Germany), Hungary,
Poland, Rumania, signed in 1951. Established unified military command, with
each nation agreeing to give assistance to any member attacked in Europe.
WEIMAR REPUBLIC: is the name given to Germanys first federal republic,
named after its capital, Weimar. Created in 1919 it lasted until 1933 when
Hitler came to power. The Allies, after World War I, forced its
representatives to sign the Versailles Treaty which, among other features,
charged Germany with the sole guilt for the war. Thus Germanys first
republican government got off to an inauspicious start, since Germans were
later to identify democracy with what they regarded as a dictated peace.
WEST IRIAN: formerly the Netherlands New Guinea, it is the western part
of the island of New Guinea, which became a province of Indonesia in 1963.
ZIONISM: is the belief in the establishment of a separate home for the
Jewish people. The movement was founded in the late 19th century by
Theodor Herzl, and was supported by Chaim Weizmann during World War I.
Britain supported the general idea of a Jewish homeland in the official
Balfour Declaration of 1917.